Ancient Egypt lasted for about 3,000 years which is a little older than ancient China's empire! This meant that a lot happened within Egypt in terms of society and culture which is probably the main reason why they are so fascinating to many historians.....like China. Alright, enough about China! The following are the most important (and least boring) facts about ancient Egypt in general.
The Nile River
The main reason why Egyptians were able to build a civilization in the middle of the desert was because of the Nile River. The Nile provided (and still does) fresh water and easy farming for the Egyptians (not to mention fishing). Every year the Nile flooded and left behind nutrients necessary for farming wheat and barley. In addition, the Nile provided easy transportation since most of the important Egyptian cities at the time were along the Nile.
Right- The Nile River from space. Note how only the land right next to the river is green.
One of the many reasons why ancient Egypt is so well known is because of its large number of pyramids, temples, and other great structures. Pyramids, one of the things that has made Egypt so famous, are broken into 3 different types: step, bent, and the famous Great pyramid. Other impressing structures the Egyptians built were large temples and obelisks (similar to the Washington Monument).
Left, top- The 3 types of Egyptian pyramids. The bent and step pyramids were the first pyramids to be built but most pharaohs preferred the Great pyramid's design.
Left, bottom- The Luxor Temple (and obelisk)
The pharaoh was both the political and religious leader of ancient Egypt. In Egyptian society, the pharaoh was considered a living god. This was the reason why pharaohs lived a life full of riches and had temples and pyramids built for them. This was also the main reason why pharaohs were preserved as mummies and buried in those pyramids or in the Valley of the Kings.
Right- The Sarcophagus of Tutankhamun or King Tut, one of the most well-known pharaohs. The Valley of the Kings, were 62 different tombs have been found....so far.
picture source- cve.dromfem.top
Egyptian society is shown here to the left in a social pyramid (because you know, Egyptians built pyramids).
At the top was the pharaoh, the religious and political leader of ancient Egypt. Below him was the government officials, nobles and priests who helped the pharaoh rule over Egypt. Below them was the Egyptian military (mostly generals) which were followed by the educated scribes who kept records of the military, food supplies, and wrote the complicated hieroglyphics. Merchants and craftsmen were below the scribes while below them were the farmers and (of course) slaves.
Because there are a large number of Egyptian gods, (there are up to 2,000 different names of gods through ancient Egypt's history) this a list of the most common ones. Note how most are half-human, half-animal.
Some of the many gods the Egyptians worshiped through their ancient history.